Joe the friendly coffee maker

Last week I visited thomasdotwtf from eventphone who has a jura coffee machine. We took one evening to look into it, how easy it is, to use a generic BLE device like a raspberry pi to control it. He has a Jura Z8 Automatic Coffee Machine which supports an IOS/Android app via Bluetooh LE.

Jura released (at least) two different apps to control it.

  • pl.mkssystems.juracoffee.household (Jura Coffee)
  • ch.toptronic.joe (J.O.E.)

Both apps supports ordering, changing properties of a coffee (e.g. how much water do you want to have or how much coffee should be in there?). seems to went out-of-service, but the internet archive still have an old version and they show a lot of coffee machine related products. As well as a small blue device [1].

This is the BlueFrog a bluetooth dongle to control Jura coffee machines.

What can you do with the Apps?

  • Configure your Coffee
  • Produce a Coffee
  • Statistics
  • Firmware updates

How we looked into?

  • bluetooth packettrace: We used the android btsnoop.log to retrieve a packet trace which we loaded into wireshark.
  • decompiled with different tools the .apk
  • loaded the source code into android studio

What we found out?

The J.O.E. application is using XML files to be configured for the different coffee machines. The XML defines products (e.g. a coffee, a green tea, ...), there are properties (e.g. how much coffee should be produced), statistics and settings. The article number defines the XML file to be used.

A firmware process including the update urls and the new firmware.

We tried to find the same commands which should work on the RS232/serial in the bluetooth packet trace, but there wasn't any. After looking further in the code, we found a lot UUIDs for characteristics including a human readable name. We discovered also an "encryption" method which uses 2x hardcoded keys as well an additional input of 8 bit from the BLE advertisment. The encryption look like a static key.

In the BLE advertisment, there are manufactoring data. In our case, the manufactoring data contains 27 bytes. If 16 bit will be used, it's little endian.

manufactoring data as hex (27 byte):
aa 05 06 03 d73a yyyy xxxx 5836 4435 01 c0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00

aa: key
05: BlueFrog Major Version
06: BlueFrog Minor Version
03: unused (maybe Patch Version?)
d73a: article number (the specific type of the machine)
yyyy: machine number
xxxx: serial number
5836: production date (Feb. 2017)
4435: production date UHCI (does UHCI means the bluefrog?) (Okt. 2016)
01: unused
c0: bitmask, define supported features

The production dates can be decoded and also validated using the application where it's shown in the connection fragment:

days: (i & 31)
month: ((i & 480) >> 5)
year: ((i & 65024) >> 9) + 1990;

What to do next?

Write a decrypt function which can parse pcap files and shows the message or write a dissector (lua) for wireshark with decryption function.

Find out how to map the XML files into commands towards the BlueFrog.

Bluetooth Interface

The good thing of BLE is, it's standarzied in the communication. BLE uses Bluetooth Attribute Protocol to communicate. The Bluetooth Attribute Protocol uses services and characteristics. A service is an object which can hold multiple characteristics. A characteristic can support one or more of the following operations read, write, notification, indication. Every service has a UUID as well a characteristic has a UUID. The Bluetooth Attribute Protocol has it's own methods to discover avaiable services and characterics. For more information please take a closer look into Bluetooth Low Energy.

As a general BLE device, the BlueFrog annouce itself on the BLE.

> hcitool lescan
LE Scan ...
C9:26:E8:4B:72:02 TT214H BlueFrog

> HCI Event: LE Meta Event (0x3e) plen 43                    #8 [hci0] 8.466202
      LE Advertising Report (0x02)
        Num reports: 1
        Event type: Scan response - SCAN_RSP (0x04)
        Address type: Random (0x01)
        Address: C9:26:E8:4B:72:02 (Static)
        Data length: 31
        Company: Ingenieur-Systemgruppe Zahn GmbH (171)
        Data: aa050603d73a080402005836443501c00000000000000000000000
        RSSI: -78 dBm (0xb2)

And further more we can also look for the services and characteristics via the gatttool.

> gatttool -b C9:26:E8:4B:72:02 --services -t random

attr handle = 0x0001, end grp handle = 0x0007 uuid: 00001800-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
attr handle = 0x0008, end grp handle = 0x0008 uuid: 00001801-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
attr handle = 0x0009, end grp handle = 0x0033 uuid: 5a401523-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710
attr handle = 0x0034, end grp handle = 0x003a uuid: 5a401623-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710
attr handle = 0x003b, end grp handle = 0xffff uuid: 00001530-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123
> gatttool -b C9:26:E8:4B:72:02 --characteristics -t random

handle = 0x0002, char properties = 0x0a, char value handle = 0x0003, uuid = 00002a00-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
handle = 0x0004, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x0005, uuid = 00002a01-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
handle = 0x0006, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x0007, uuid = 00002a04-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb
handle = 0x000a, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x000b, uuid = 5a401524-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710
handle = 0x000d, char properties = 0x08, char value handle = 0x000e, uuid = 5a401525-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710
handle = 0x0010, char properties = 0x08, char value handle = 0x0011, uuid = 5a401529-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710
handle = 0x0013, char properties = 0x08, char value handle = 0x0014, uuid = 5a401528-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710
handle = 0x0016, char properties = 0x0a, char value handle = 0x0017, uuid = 5a401530-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710
handle = 0x0019, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x001a, uuid = 5a401527-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710
handle = 0x001c, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x001d, uuid = 5a401531-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710
handle = 0x001f, char properties = 0x0a, char value handle = 0x0020, uuid = 5a401532-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710
handle = 0x0022, char properties = 0x0a, char value handle = 0x0023, uuid = 5a401535-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710
handle = 0x0025, char properties = 0x0a, char value handle = 0x0026, uuid = 5a401533-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710
handle = 0x0028, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x0029, uuid = 5a401534-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710
handle = 0x002b, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x002c, uuid = 5a401536-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710
handle = 0x002e, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x002f, uuid = 5a401537-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710
handle = 0x0031, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x0032, uuid = 5a401538-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710
handle = 0x0035, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x0036, uuid = 5a401624-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710
handle = 0x0038, char properties = 0x08, char value handle = 0x0039, uuid = 5a401625-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710
handle = 0x003c, char properties = 0x04, char value handle = 0x003d, uuid = 00001532-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123
handle = 0x003e, char properties = 0x18, char value handle = 0x003f, uuid = 00001531-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123

Bluetooth Services and Characteristics

service table
start end uuid name  
0x0001 0x0007 0x1800 Generic Access Profile  
0x0008 0x0008 0x1801 Generic Attribute Profile  
0x0009 0x0033 5a401523-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710    
0x0034 0x003a 5a401623-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710    
0X003b 0xffff 00001530-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123    
Generic Access Profile (GAP) 0x0001 .. 0x0007
handle value handle properties uuid description
0x0002 0x0003 RW (0xa) 00002a00-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb  
0x0004 0x0005 R (0x2) 00002a01-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb  
0x0006 0x0007 R (0x2) 00002a04-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb  
5a401523-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 0x0009 .. 0x0033a
handle value handle properties uuid description
0x000a 0x000b R (0x2) 5a401524-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Machine Status
0x000d 0x000e W (0x8) 5a401525-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Product Start
0x0010 0x0011 W (0x8) 5a401529-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Service Control
0x0013 0x0014 W (0x8) 5a401528-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Update Product Progress
0x0016 0x0017 RW (0xa) 5a401530-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Product Progress
0x0019 0x001a R (0x2) 5a401527-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 About
0x001c 0x001d R (0x2) 5a401531-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710  
0x001f 0x0020 RW (0xa) 5a401532-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710  
0x0022 0x0023 RW (0xa) 5a401535-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710  
0x0025 0x0026 RW (0xa) 5a401533-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Statistics command
0x0028 0x0029 R (0x2) 5a401534-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Statistics data
0x002b 0x002c R (0x2) 5a401536-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710  
0x002e 0x002f R (0x2) 5a401537-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710  
0x0031 0x0032 R (0x2) 5a401538-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Service Control Response
5a401623-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 0x0034 .. 0x003a
handle value handle properties uuid description
0x0035 0x0036 R (0x2) 5a401624-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710  
0x0038 0x0039 W (0x8) 5a401625-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710  
Nordic DFU 00001530-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123 0x003b .. 0xffff
handle value handle properties uuid description
0x003c 0x003d W- (0x4) 00001532-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123 Nordic DFU_PACKET_CHARACTERISTI
0x003e 0x003f W N (0x18) 00001531-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123 Nordic DFU_CONTROL_POINT_CHARACTERISTIC
  • R means read
  • W mean write with response
  • W- means write without response
  • N means notification